DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) is a chemical compound consisting of the attributes of the living organisms. DNA molecules consist of paired strands termed as double helix. There are four chemical units in one DNA with the basis Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G) & Cytosine (C). The pairs of A-T and G-C are formed and these are the encodings of the DNA molecule. for further details, click on : https://www.gov.uk/dna-testing-parentage-disagreements
Genome is the name given to the whole set of DNA in any organism. There is complete copy of DNA pairs included with 3 billion DNA base pairs included in the human genome. DNA consists of the information of the entire body of human being. It carries the instructions for making the required protein or the whole set of proteins. There are about 20K-25K genes in a body for an average of three proteins.
Genes reside on the 23 chromosome pairs packed into the nucleus of the human cell. They direct the protein production with the help of messenger molecules and enzymes in the body. The information is copied in the DNA molecule termed as Messenger Ribonucleic Acid (mRNA). Ribosome is the tiny molecular machine helping in linkage of molecules together called amino acids. The proteins are formed by linking together these amino acids in appropriate order. click here for more details.
Proteins can control chemical reactions and carry the signals between the cells. In case of mutation of DNA, an abnormal protein is produced, which interrupts with the daily processes and leads to cancerous diseases in the body.
Sequencing of DNA
Sequencing means the determination of the exact order of the DNA base strands. These basis exist in individual pairs and one of them determines the other members of the pair. Researchers only give reporting for one base of the pair. read more about researches and result on : http://www.fluidiom.com/seti-researches-and-results/
In the common forms of sequencing; called sequencing by synthesis; DNA polymerase is used for generation of new DNA strand from the strand of interest. The reaction of sequencing involves enzymes turning into new DNA strand nucleotides, which have been tagged chemically with fluorescent labeling. This process makes the nucleotide excited by the light source and the emission of fluorescent signal. This method can generate reading for 125 nucleotides in a row; which means billions of reads at one time.
The assembly of sequence of the bases requires reading for the sequence of overlapping segments. It makes the longer sequences to be generated from the short pieces; similar to putting together the jigsaw puzzle. This process requires reading of base several times for assuring accurate results. Researchers make use of DNA sequencing to search for variations in genes and mutations; which play an essential role in the progression or development of a disease. The dog specially french bulldogs has emerged as a premier species for the study of morphology, behavior, and disease.
The disease causing change is a smaller substitution, addition or deletion of a single base pair. It might also involve the large deletion of the bases; resulting into several deformities. Genome study is essential for biology and specifically genetics department. National Institutes of Health (NIH) produced high quality human genome sequence, which was made available in public databases. It is representative of generic sequence with samples from volunteers. Human Genome Project generated the source, which could be used for broad range of biomedical studies.…
Multi-nation Programme on Functional Genomics
The European Science Foundation programme, Integrated Approaches for
Functional Genomics, aims to enhance the development and collaboration of
functional genomics research in Europe. The programme is designed to bring
together a wide range of functional genomics researchers, to help Europe take
advantage of new technologies and genomics information by supporting an
integrative approach. The unique structure of the programme encourages experts
to mix and share their knowledge with others and younger scientists alike. It is
designed to facilitate a pan-European approach to research problems and foster
collaborations amongst the participating countries.
Set up in 2000, the programme will run for 5 years and is funded by science
and research councils in 23 supporting countries. In the UK, the BBSRC, the MRC
and NERC all contribute to the funding. It is overseen by a steering committee
consisting of a senior scientist representing each country. The chairman is Mike
Taussig of the Babraham Institute, Cambridge. The committee meets once a year to
evaluate the success of past events and set directions for the upcoming year.
The programme covers all major areas of functional genomicsÖ
● Analysis of phenotypic changes resulting from
mutagenesis and gene disruption
● DNA arrays and chips in expression profiling and
● Proteomics: protein identification,
characterisation, expression and interactions
● Structural genomics: protein structure
determination, classification, modelling and docking
● In silico methods for the description of cellular systems by
data and literature mining, predictions and simulations
● Standardisation, benchmarking and comparison of
different experimental systems
● Data management: databases, interfaces and
● Combination and integration of functional genomics data to derive
new biological knowledge
Programme activities include workshops, training courses, lecture courses and exchange grants for short-term inter-laboratory visits. A web site has been set up specifically to co-ordinate the programme, advertise events and provide the international functional genomics community with valuable resources (see www.functionalgenomics.org.uk) The site contains all relevant information on the events running, including reports from previous meetings. These are circulated to a mailing list. To join the list and receive information on deadlines and meeting updates, please go to the “Join Us” button on the top of each page. This feature also allows scientists to add their details to an open directory where one can search for potential collaborators or experts in certain fields of research. The web site is maintained at the Babraham Institute, Cambridge.
Scientists working in any participating country are eligible to attend events without paying registration fees and the only requirement for exchange grants is that either the host laboratory or the applicant must belong to one of the participating countries. The programme encourages applications from across the continent and funds events in different countries. In 2003 the following workshops and courses have been planned and there is a further call for proposals with a deadline of March 1st 2003.
Functional genomics and disease||
Prague, Czech Rep|
New in vivo imaging modalities for Molecular Biology, Cell Biology and
May 31st – June 4th||
Regulatory and functional RNAs: computational, genomic and structural
July 27th – August 8th||
From gene array to gene-a-row||
(Date to be finalised)
Biocrystallography: From gene to drug||
Data integration in functional genomics and proteomics: application to
September – mid-October (Date to be finalised )||
Ample space is always programmed into workshop timetables for discussion
time. These small meetings of no more than 60 participants often yield extremely
valuable comments and in order to circulate these to …
Week 1: I am sleeping, eating and snuggling with Mom.
What more could a newborn ask for? I’m full, warm, clean and loved by all!
Week 2: I’m so fat! All I can do is move like a baby seal…and I look like one too. My 1st photo shoot happens this week …sigh. Also, my eyes are opening and what a world. At least I can see where I’m going…sort of. My mom is really keeping me all clean and oh so cute.
Week 3: My human mom Nancy is having to help with keeping me and my bed clean. My siblings are sooooo messy! Mom Nancy is washing 3 loads a day so we can have a clean bed. whew…
Week 4: Now is the time to let Mom Nancy know if you want to adopt me. Please make sure your application has been emailed or faxed to her. I’m now on the move a bit more. You can see me getting up on my legs more now. I’m learning social skills now. Playtime is so fun…but I get tired easy and just fall asleep where I’m at. I am getting my baby teeth in and Mom will begin weaning me soon. Mom Nancy gives me extra nurishment too as Mom doesn’t like my new teeth very much. sigh…
This is optional but you can send me a puppy blanket and a pillow case or t-shirt with your scent on it. This will help me get use to you before we meet. Something you have slept with or a t-shirt you have worked out in works well too. Be sure to send the item in a zip-lock bag. Having your scent with me will help me to know you before we meet…and I will bond with you even quicker!
Week 5: I’m doing lots of playing and socializing right now. I get to go outside if it is nice and play in my playpen. Outside is so interesting and fun! I’m learning to use wee wee pads too. You are welcome to come meet me anytime you want. I’d love to show you my room and my toys. You can meet my Mommy, Daddy and mom Nancy too!
Week 6: I get my 1st real BATH this week. My potty training is coming along. I’m doing my best but sometimes I make a mistake. I’m eating softened kibble too. Mom Nancy feeds me Fromm Gold Puppy kibble. I love it! She order’s it from Chewy’s.com.
Week 7: I’m learning to walk in a harness with a leash. Mom Nancy says I’m such a smart puppy. I think so too.
Week 8: I might be ready to come home now. Have you read all of the “Caring for Frenchies” page? Are you ready for me? Have you PUPPY PROOFED the house? Is my bed and play area all ready? Do you have Nylabone and or Donkey Kong toys for me??? I can’t have rawhide. I might choke on it. MOST important…do you have my food? Mom Nancy gives you some when you come to get me. She knows how I love to eat.
My Mom Nancy may decide that I need to stay with my Mom a little longer. I might not weigh enough or might need a little more time perfecting my eating habits. Personally, I think Mom Nancy just doesn’t want to see me leave. She loves me sooooo much. I am looking forward to coming home with you tho!
Let Mom Nancy know if you need anything else before I get there. You will get a copy …
People who raise French Bulldogs do so for either the love of the breed or for money. Those who do so for love spend what they feel is needed in order to have healthy pups. Those who do it for the money spend as little as possible. They just want what appears to be a healthy puppy to sell for as much money as possible, even though they usually sell them cheaper than a lot of other breeders. This is my opinion. The prices on my pups fall in between the high dollar show prices and the low ball money grubbers. Why? Because I just wanted to sell good quality French Bulldog puppies at prices that I might be able to make a small profit on and yet help those wanting such dogs to boot. I think you ought to be able to get a really good Frenchie pup at less than $4,000.00 for goodness sakes. I’m an honest person, and I’d say anyone that puts as much work into my litters as I do, hopes to make a profit at some point. Below are the so called clinical reasons for the high prices of French Bulldog puppies:
1.) The vast majority cannot breed on their own. Stud fees run from $500 to $2500 and they have to be artificially inseminated ($150 per at 4 to 5 times). This brings on more expense as the female will under go tests to find out when she is ovulating. This can cost up to $750.00 depending on how many blood tests are taken. IF she takes and carries the pups to full term, then a c-section ($800.00) is scheduled. She cannot deliver naturally. If the pups are taken too soon, they will not be fully developed and will die. The mother will also not come in with milk which is vital to their health. If taken too late, they will detach from the placenta and suffocate or get stuck in the birth canal…leading to their death and sometimes the death of their mother. If everything, goes as planned, you still can end up with complications leading to bottle feeding and cleaning their private parts in order for them to urinate and pass stools. The average litter size is 3 puppies.
2.) I’m tired, so I’ll post more later.…
Genomics is the subset of genetics having application for recombinant DNA, sequencing and assembly methods. It involves discovery based research to understand the complex biological systems of the human body. This field involves the efforts to study DNA sequencing and in-depth genetic mapping. It also includes the studies of several phenomenon and interaction within the genome. The research of single genes doesn’t include in the genomics unless it has the aim for having effect in genetics in any way.
Functional genomics involves the usage of vast database involving the usage of genomic projects for data production. Functional genomics have main focus on the dynamic aspects, such as gene translation, transcription and protein interactions. Functional genomics attempts to give answers to all the functioning of DNA levels and their genomics approach. for more related information, visit : https://www.princeton.edu/genomics/sequencing/
It is the study of the complete set of epigenetic modifications on the genetic material of the cell. These are reversible effects on DNA without changing the DNA sequence in any way. Epigenetic modifications play an integral role in expression and regulation of the genes and have involvement in numerous processes linked with development and differentiation of processes.
It is involves the study of meta-genomes, which is a genetic material recovered from the environmental samples. It has the involvement with eco-genomics, community and environment. It offers the powerful way of viewing the microbial world having the capability to revolutionize the entire living world.
Structural genomics describes the 3D structure of every protein having encoding with the given genome. It follows the approach of experimenting and modeling under one process. There is traditional prediction that the protein focuses on the large number of sequenced genomes and solved structures. It focuses on structure determination and experimental methods to a protein of known structure. It rises the new ideas to determine protein from its 3D formation.…
A Faraday Partnership helps in promotion of improved interactive sessions between the UK Science, engineering and technology based program with the aim of process innovation. It brings all the researchers and scientists together for involvement of organizations, societies and government agencies.
Faraday Partnerships give strength to the technological derivations and new product developments. The active players progress under the common sector theme and technology with some pre-defined common targets and working methods. It makes the innovation for effective use of resources with sectional and self-interested group. Faraday partnerships have key importance to the industrial progress of the UK.
The main aim behind the Pro-Bio Faraday Partnership is to undertake safety improvements, environmental and economic industry. It also focuses on the development of new technology and implementing it within different industries. Pro-Bio makes target on the companies using bio-catalysis and the ones not having expertise for realizing the whole potential of the faster developing field. Pro-Bio activities are split into two sections: aiming at generic activities and helping the individual members. for related information, visit : http://www.theguardian.com/education/2001/nov/14/research.highereducation
Generic activities: Research programs are conducted on regular basis to administer the results. There are many submissions done for producing technology based reports each year. Workshops are held every year for providing a common platform to the experts for presenting information to the community. Pro-bio also interacts with the external organizations and hold joint events for getting assistance on the joint programs. There are technology roadmaps made for the strategic advancements.
Company specific/Individual Activities: All companies are visited by the technology translator. There are potential solutions meant for assisting the companies to gauge best benefits out of bio-catalysis. There is assistance for identification of potential grants and funds for demonstration projects, financial assistance and training opportunities. The experts perform the translations on behalf of Pro-Bio to begin the new initiatives.…
The main aim of the European Science Foundation program was to enhance the development of functional genomics R & D in Europe. The program was designed in the way to bring a wide range of functional genomics researchers and get advantage of novel technologies and information with integrated approach. The program was made to share the information and knowledge with the like minded unique scientist like people of all the ages. There was pan-European approach made for researching through the programs and make collaboration with participating nations. click here for more details.
The set up of the European Science Foundation program was made for the span of 5 years and it was funded by scientific research in 23 supporting countries. The steering committee consisted of senior scientists representing each country. They conduct meeting once in a year for evaluation of success of previous events and setting up directions for the coming year. for related information, visit : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK22052/
The major areas of functional genomics were covered in the program:
- DNA arrays and chips in mutation detection and expression profiling
- Proteomics: Identification, expression and Interaction of proteins
- Phenotypic change analysis from genetic disruption
- Describing the cellular systems by data, predictions and simulations
- Combinational and integrated functional genomics data for deriving biological knowledge
- Data management including databases and interfaces
There are training courses, workshops, grant exchanges and lecture courses designed for short term inter-lab visits. The website is set up for coordination of events and use of resources in the field of international functional genomics.
There is relevant information given on the new events and the previous reports from the old meetings. These are circulated among the community members and it is feasible to do it with ‘Join Us’ button on the top of each page. The scientists can add new details and even search for experts in any field.…
In virtual sense, every medical ailment has some or the other linkage with our genes. Earlier, doctors were able to study about genetics only to check the birth defects or a few diseases. These conditions were predictable with inheritance patterns as it is caused by variations of a single gene.
DNA research is very common among scientists and clinicians and there are many powerful tools designed to study the impact of genes on different bodies. Environment plays an important and complex role in DNA research and finding cure to problems related to many diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, heart diseases and many other issues.
Genome research has been helpful in making the medical researchers develop the improved ways of diagnosing and finding therapeutic strategies for any medical issues. It can also enable them to take better decision for providers and patients. The solutions to problems are tailored according to the genomic makeover of the patients. The role of genetics in healthcare is vast and it even sets up examples for the next generations to proceed in the appropriate way. click here for more details.
It is essential to realize that there is proper effort and funding required for finalizing any results from various searches and developments. Genome based drugs are 10-15 years away from today’s time, but it will considerably improve the genetic defects in people with a short level of time. Biotech experts acclaim that it takes more than 10 years for any company to carry forward such studies and there are approvals from many agencies required for the same. for more information, visit :http://www1.bio.ku.dk/english/research/fg/
Screening and diagnostic tests involves the usage of genetic data of any patient to tailor the therapies according to their customized requirements. Genes are the primary factor for many diseases; followed by diet, exposure and lifestyle. Deep research about genetics will give a clearer vision for the hereditary risks by revealing the cell components and the ways to avoid these things for coming generations.…