DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) is a chemical compound consisting of the attributes of the living organisms. DNA molecules consist of paired strands termed as double helix. There are four chemical units in one DNA with the basis Adenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G) & Cytosine (C). The pairs of A-T and G-C are formed and these are the encodings of the DNA molecule. for further details, click on : https://www.gov.uk/dna-testing-parentage-disagreements
Genome is the name given to the whole set of DNA in any organism. There is complete copy of DNA pairs included with 3 billion DNA base pairs included in the human genome. DNA consists of the information of the entire body of human being. It carries the instructions for making the required protein or the whole set of proteins. There are about 20K-25K genes in a body for an average of three proteins.
Genes reside on the 23 chromosome pairs packed into the nucleus of the human cell. They direct the protein production with the help of messenger molecules and enzymes in the body. The information is copied in the DNA molecule termed as Messenger Ribonucleic Acid (mRNA). Ribosome is the tiny molecular machine helping in linkage of molecules together called amino acids. The proteins are formed by linking together these amino acids in appropriate order. click here for more details.
Proteins can control chemical reactions and carry the signals between the cells. In case of mutation of DNA, an abnormal protein is produced, which interrupts with the daily processes and leads to cancerous diseases in the body.
Sequencing of DNA
Sequencing means the determination of the exact order of the DNA base strands. These basis exist in individual pairs and one of them determines the other members of the pair. Researchers only give reporting for one base of the pair. read more about researches and result on : http://www.fluidiom.com/seti-researches-and-results/
In the common forms of sequencing; called sequencing by synthesis; DNA polymerase is used for generation of new DNA strand from the strand of interest. The reaction of sequencing involves enzymes turning into new DNA strand nucleotides, which have been tagged chemically with fluorescent labeling. This process makes the nucleotide excited by the light source and the emission of fluorescent signal. This method can generate reading for 125 nucleotides in a row; which means billions of reads at one time.
The assembly of sequence of the bases requires reading for the sequence of overlapping segments. It makes the longer sequences to be generated from the short pieces; similar to putting together the jigsaw puzzle. This process requires reading of base several times for assuring accurate results. Researchers make use of DNA sequencing to search for variations in genes and mutations; which play an essential role in the progression or development of a disease. The dog specially french bulldogs has emerged as a premier species for the study of morphology, behavior, and disease.
The disease causing change is a smaller substitution, addition or deletion of a single base pair. It might also involve the large deletion of the bases; resulting into several deformities. Genome study is essential for biology and specifically genetics department. National Institutes of Health (NIH) produced high quality human genome sequence, which was made available in public databases. It is representative of generic sequence with samples from volunteers. Human Genome Project generated the source, which could be used for broad range of biomedical studies.